Instead of making up an individual post for each of these links and just copying and pasting what the link has, I'm just going to post a big link posting here with a description of each link. If you can't tell by the links, I was doing some browsing on MSDN :-) I don't think that anyone can possibly know everything about SharePoint but my general philosophy is to at least be knowledgeable enough to know where to look to find what you need without wasting too much time, so hopefully these links help with that.
Introduction to SharePoint Products and Technologies for the Professional .NET Developer
Whether your new or old to SharePoint this link is a great intro/refresher for SharePoint. It details what is included in WSS and what is in MOSS (always a common question) along with some nice visuals which can come in handy later. The part I found to be the most interesting was the terminology section. SharePoint has a lot of new vocab that can be a bit confusing at first, and for a new developer or BA, this section can be very helpful so that you don't look at people with a blank stare when they throw out one of these terms.
Understanding the Report Center and Dashboards in SharePoint Server 2007
Other than the MOSS Admin test I took a few months back, I haven't worked/looked at Reporting and Dashboards in SharePoint, I just haven't had a need/time to do so. This link gives you a nice overview of the report center and dashboards as they relate to SharePoint. It is a good read for anyone that isn't familiar with reporting and dashboards in SharePoint and can quickly get you up to speed with the technology/terms used so that you can get a better understanding in minimal time.
User permissions and permission levels
This link gives a great overview of all the different permission levels in SharePoint. It also goes down to the list and site level permissions that can be applied as well as descriptions of each. If for example you were wondering what giving a user "View Usage Data" means, what it depends on, and what level includes it by default then this link is for you.
Back up and restore the entire farm (Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 technology)
The title is a bit deceiving because all of it relates to really WSS 3.0 and MOSS 2007, so the info can be used for both. What the link gets you to though is a splash page of sorts with links giving you information on how to backup and restore various objects in your farm, even your entire farm. All this information is good info for any SharePoint "worker" (for lack of a better word, basically anyone that uses SharePoint) because at some point or another, your going to have to backup an object in SharePoint and this link will give you the info and tools to do so.
Understanding the Administrative Object Model of Windows SharePoint Services 3.0
If you've attended any of my presentations lately, you'll surely know that I am a BIG fan of the SharePoint object model and use it over the GUI whenever possible. This link goes into even more detail than I have in my past presentations, as well as having some very nice visuals to help put it all together. What was really helpful to me (and something I gloss over in my presentations) is the difference between the web services and windows services as they relate to a farm. When I hear "web services" I naturally think .asmx files, but in terms of a SharePoint farm, web services relate to the service that actually serves up the data and web content to the browser. In addition, it contains a nice code sample at the bottom that iterates over your farm and shows you a lot of info that your probably not used to seeing.
Automating Solution Package Creation for Windows SharePoint Services by Using MSBuild
If you've ever created a solution/feature, then you'll know that frankly its a manual and tedious process to get to the actual .WSP file that you want. Dealing with the .ddf file which is used to make a cab file is a pain, once you know it it's not that bad, but its tedious like I said. In this link, Andrew Connell does a nice job of showing you how to automate this process by using MSBuild (another tool I have on my TODO list).
Deploy using DBA-created databases (Office SharePoint Server)
Most companies have a DBA and therefore SQL Server falls under their domain. SharePoint is so database dependant that you'll most likely have to deal with the DBA and they will typically want control of the database that SharePoint users. If you run into this case then the this link will help you out when the DBA wants control of the databases and creating them. It also details some of the account permissions that relate to the database accounts for SharePoint.
Database types and descriptions (Office SharePoint Server)
This is a really good link if you want more information as to the databases that SharePoint creates and what they are used for.
Features included in Office SharePoint Server 2007
I finally stumbled on the link I've been looking for for awhile, a list of features that are out of the box with SharePoint. It goes into detail about what features are activated when you select a site template. I don't what else to say about this link other than go now, read it and bookmark it, cause i'm sure you'll be going back to it frequently.
Account permissions and security settings (Office SharePoint Server)
Its not new information that SharePoint requires a lot of accounts to run properly. Each of these accounts has various permission levels and access rights and this link really goes into the nitty gritty details of these. Another nice tidbit in the link is that it lists some of the file directories and registry keys that SharePoint users and the permissions that they need to function properly.